Important note :
Before entering the following text and series of these posts dealing with many controversial subjects, I would like to warn all individuals with sensitive perception of this World not to read it. There are some disturbing details describing committed atrocities, with very high probability of consequence, that your worldview may irreversibly change. Your first reaction may be anger and rejection, however you would not be the first person in this World with such symptoms of exposure to numbing reality. There is one essential prerequisite needed though. It would be necessary that any of you, who may be reading this series, and have never experienced life within communist society / regime, to acknowledge the fact that you may be clueless about wickedness and degree of extreme fascism that survived for decades.
“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”
The thread of this part is not only my attempt to show the proportions of the Red Evil, the terror known as communism. There are some descriptions and quotes included in the text, which can at least superficially explain the personalities of all responsible people involved. Trying to answer what could be leading one human to commit or participate in committing atrocities unheard of in human history – is the essence of this series of essays, which will be looked into in the following posts. As I have already mentioned, the title may sound pompous and the subject of communism may be old news to many readers, however nobody seemed to have answered few extremely important questions when researching. As if nobody seems to care enough about the very recent past to try and explain the reasons that were driving absolutely and ultimately biggest organized terror for decades long. At the same time, I have no intentions to render other researchers’ work meaningless nor do I want to claim I have invented something new in regard to communism as political/social system. It is quite the opposite, my intention is to try and upgrade research done so far by many others in this regard and to connect some more dots.
Learning from the Part I of this series of posts, I’ve compiled a list of countries that expelled or massacred Jews at least once in their history:
- Austria/Habsburg monarchy,
- Hungary / Magyars,
- Ukraine (previously under Polish rule),
- All former Yugoslavian countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia).
The list is more or less identical to that presented in the Part I, with addition of western European countries, which will be out the focus of this essay. I will look at the countries from »Group A« at some other occasion, for the teaser let me just mention that Spaniards got their penance with the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco Bahamonde[i], who ruled over Spain for 36 years from 1939 until his death in 1975.[ii] Portuguese on the other hand received a special treatment, with their First Portugese Republic, a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, when they experienced a revolution, coup d’état, a brief civil war and Ditadura Nacional (national dictatorship) that would be followed by the corporatist Estado Novo (new state) regime of António de Oliveira Salazar.
Communism as pure evil
In the following text the records of events of Russian October revolution are presented. To be more specific, we will look into the consequences experienced by all those people, who were ruthlessly oppressed, molested, hungered, and exterminated in gulags and mass shootings in the period between 1917 and 1990 when cabal’s feast ended. For the major part of this series, the case of Russia is presented as the one that stands out the most with the shocking body count during the years of Red Evil.
For those of you who will be reading this, but did not yet had an opportunity to learn about the fact that Russian revolution of 1917 was a masquerade of the elite Jews, here is a single most telling passage from Sutton’s work »Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution«. It reads as if it was an excerpt from a thriller story, I bolded the last paragraph although there are so many important things in Sutton’s book that it should be bolded in its entirety:
»Consequently, we can derive the following sequence of events: Trotsky traveled from New York to Petrograd on a passport supplied by the intervention of Woodrow Wilson, and with the declared intention to “carry forward” the revolution. The British government was the immediate source of Trotsky’s release from Canadian custody in April 1917, but there may well have been “pressures.” Lincoln Steffens, an American Communist, acted as a link between Wilson and Charles R. Crane and between Crane and Trotsky. Further, while Crane had no official position, his son Richard was confidential assistant to Secretary of State Robert Lansing, and Crane senior was provided with prompt and detailed reports on the progress of the Bolshevik Revolution. Moreover, Ambassador William Dodd (U.S. ambassador to Germany in the Hitler era) said that Crane had an active role in the Kerensky phase of the revolution; the Steffens letters confirm that Crane saw the Kerensky phase as only one step in a continuing revolution.¸
The interesting point, however, is not so much the communication among dissimilar persons like Crane, Steffens, Trotsky, and Woodrow Wilson as the existence of at least a measure of agreement on the procedure to be followed — that is, the Provisional Government was seen as “provisional,” and the “re-revolution” was to follow.
On the other side of the coin, interpretation of Trotsky’s intentions should be cautious: he was adept at double games. Official documentation clearly demonstrates contradictory actions. For example, the Division of Far Eastern Affairs in the U.S. State Department received on March 23, 1918, two reports stemming from Trotsky; one is inconsistent with the other. One report, dated March 20 and from Moscow, originated in the Russian newspaper Russkoe Slovo. The report cited an interview with Trotsky in which he stated that any alliance with the United States was impossible:
The Russia of the Soviet cannot align itself… with capitalistic America for this would be a betrayal It is possible that Americans seek such a rapprochement with us, driven by its antagonism towards Japan, but in any case there can be no question of an alliance by us of any nature with a bourgeoisie nation.
The other report, also originating in Moscow, is a message dated March 17, 1918, three days earlier, and from Ambassador Francis: “Trotsky requests five American officers as inspectors of army being organized for defense also requests railroad operating men and equipment.”
This request to the U.S. is of course inconsistent with rejection of an “alliance.”
Before we leave Trotsky some mention should be made of the Stalinist show trials of the 1930s and, in particular, the 1938 accusations and trial of the “Anti-Soviet bloc of rightists and Trotskyites.” These forced parodies of the judicial process, almost unanimously rejected in the West, may throw light on Trotsky’s intentions.
The crux of the Stalinist accusation was that Trotskyites were paid agents of international capitalism. K. G. Rakovsky, one of the 1938 defendants, said, or was induced to say, “We were the vanguard of foreign aggression, of international fascism, and not only in the USSR but also in Spain, China, throughout the world.” The summation of the “court” contains the statement, “There is not a single man in the world who brought so much sorrow and misfortune to people as Trotsky. He is the vilest agent of fascism …. “
Now while this may be no more than verbal insults routinely traded among the international Communists of the 1930s and 40s, it is also notable that the threads behind the self-accusation are consistent with the evidence in this chapter. And further, as we shall see later, Trotsky was able to generate support among international capitalists, who, incidentally, were also supporters of Mussolini and Hitler.
So long as we see all international revolutionaries and all international capitalists as implacable enemies of one another, then we miss a crucial point — that there has indeed been some operational cooperation between international capitalists, including fascists. And there is no a priori reason why we should reject Trotsky as a part of this alliance.«
On top of Sutton or Solzhenitsyn, Miles Mathis does even more compelling research in his essay about the Russian revolution[iii], all authors’ work confirming main thesis and the fact, that we are dealing with some sinister highly organized international intrigue of crypto-Jewish cabal.
The bloody case of Russia
How does this all connect to the subject of this essay? First part of the answer is to look at the case of Russia shortly after the above mentioned cabal seized power from Tzar. There are numerous records of what was actually going on, showing that Red Terror is not a myth. Looking at the Solzhenitsyn’s[iv] book again, we can read there as follows (note that he references another author in the quote):
»It was a targeted, pre-designed and long-term Terror. Melgunov also provides estimates of the body count of that “unheard-of swing of murders.” (precise numbers were practically not available then). Yet I suppose these horrors pale into insignificance with respect to the number of victims if compared to what happened in the South after the end of the Civil War. Denikin’s [the general of the White army in command of the South Russian front] rule was crumbling. New power was ascending, accompanied by a bloody reign of vengeful terror, of mere retaliation. At this point it was not a civil war, it was physical liquidation of a former adversary. There were waves and waves of raids, searches, new raids and arrests. Entire wards of prisoners are escorted out and every last man is executed. Because of the large number of victims, a machine-gun is used; they execute 15-16-year-old children and 60-year-old elders.«
Let me repeat great man’s words: it was a targeted, pre-designed and long-term Terror. Bradberry[v] describes it as an “unrestrained orgy of rape, torture, summary executions and murder all over Russia . . . of independent farmers known as the Kulaks, ethnic minorities, the aristocracy, the bourgeoisie, the landed gentry, senior military officers, intellectuals, artists, clergy, opposition members and anyone who aroused the slightest suspicion.”
Here is an indication of just how incredibly improbable the consolidation of Soviet power was. It was akin to how in 1932 the German communists would let the Nazis attain power and then hopefully fall on their faces. In the early months and years, the Russian population at large did little to resist the Bolsheviks, even though such resistance could have made all the difference. Why the passivity? Because the new regime could not last, it was perceived as made up of crazy utopians. These over-excitable dreamers would soon be swept from the scene and from the pages of history. Or so most people thought. Had they only foreseen the result of their inaction, they surely would have acted, but in truth no one could have foreseen the utter ruthlessness of Lenin & Co. That ruthlessness had to be invoked in order to sustain in power a gang that should never have come close to the levers of power in the first place. They had fluked their way in, and then nothing – but nothing was going to dislodge them. (Hitler was a mirror-image German replay of this scenario.) Thus, asserts the great author, »the October coup snowballed into a fierce three-year-long Civil War, which brought countless bloody calamities to all the peoples of Russia.«[vi]
Further observes Solzhenitsyn: »The February Revolution was a Russian revolution [that] did not aspire to burn down the entire pre-existing life, to annihilate the whole pre-revolutionary Russia. Yet immediately after October, the Revolution spilled abroad and became an international and devastating plague, feeding itself by devouring and destroying the social order wherever it spread — everything built was to be annihilated; everything cultivated to be confiscated; whoever resisted was to be shot. The Reds were exclusively preoccupied with their grand social experiment, predestined [in theory] to be repeated, expanded and implemented all over the world.«
And the Jews amongst the Bolshevik leadership were absolutely indispensable to the spread of this plague of Red Evil, no less so than the Austrian Adolf Hitler would be indispensable to the spread of Nazism.
Who were the executioners and who were the victims?
“You must understand. The leading Bolsheviks who took over Russia were not Russians. They hated Russians. They hated Christians. Driven by ethnic hatred they tortured and slaughtered millions of Russians without a shred of human remorse. The October Revolution was not what you call in America the “Russian Revolution.” It was an invasion and conquest over the Russian people. More of my countrymen suffered horrific crimes at their bloodstained hands than any people or nation ever suffered in the entirety of human history. It cannot be understated. Bolshevism was the greatest human slaughter of all time. The fact that most of the world is ignorant of this reality is proof that the global media itself is in the hands of the perpetrators”, said Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
I will only remind you as a reader to remember that it was all financed and orchestrated by Industrialists & Bankers, as Sutton shows us in his research.
Majority of all murders and mass executions were committed by Soviet secret police, the notorious Cheka. At the head of this devious institution was Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky[vii], nicknamed Iron Felix. Another excerpt from Solzhenitsyn is describing it as: »The Cheka (chrezvychaynaya komissiya, “Extraordinary Commission”, Che-Ka) was established in December 1917. It instantly gained strength and by the beginning of 1918 it was already filling the entire populace with mortal fear. In fact, it was the Cheka that started the Red Terror long before its beginning was officially announced on September 5, 1918. The Cheka practiced terror from the moment of its inception and continued it long after the end of the Civil War. By January of 1918, the Cheka was enforcing the death penalty on the spot without investigation and trial. Then the country saw the snatching of hundreds and later thousands of absolutely innocent hostages, their mass executions at night or mass drowning in whole barges. Historian S. P. Melgunov, who himself happened to experience perilous incarceration in Cheka prisons, unforgettably reflected upon the whole epic story of the Red Terror in his famous book Red Terror in Russia 1918-1923.
There was not a single town or a district without an office of the omnipotent All-Russian Extraordinary Commission [that is, the Cheka], which from now on becomes the main nerve of state governance and absorbs the last vestiges of law; there was not a single place in the RSFSR [Russian Federation] without ongoing executions; a single verbal order of one man (Dzerzhinsky) doomed to immediate death many thousand people.
And even when investigation took place, the Chekists [members of the Cheka] followed their official instructions: “Do not look for evidence incriminating a suspect in hostile speech or action against Soviet power. The very first question you should ask him is about the social class he belongs to, and what is his descent, upbringing, education and profession. It is these questions that should determine the suspect’s fate.” (The words of M. Latsis in the bulletin Red Terror on November 1, 1918 and in Pravda on December 25, 1918). Melgunov notes: “Latsis was not original here, he simply rephrased the words of Robespierre in Convent about the mass terror: ‘To execute the enemies of the Fatherland, it is sufficient to establish their identities. Not punishment but elimination is required´.” Directives from the center are picked up and distributed all over Russia by the Cheka Weekly and Melgunov cites the periodical profusely: “Red Sword is published in Kiev … in an editorial by Lev Krainy we read: ‘Old foundations of morality and humanity invented by the bourgeoisie do not and cannot exist for us.’ A certain Schwartz follows: “The proclaimed Red Terror should be implemented in a proletarian way. If physical extermination of all servants of Czarism and capitalism is the prerequisite for the establishment of the worldwide dictatorship of proletariat, then it wouldn’t stop us”.
As much as Wikipedia says about them, after 1922 Cheka groups underwent a series of reorganizations, with the NKVD, into bodies whose members continued to be referred to as “Chekisty” (Chekists) into the late 1980s.
In 1921 the Troops for the Internal Defense of the Republic (a branch of the Cheka) numbered at least 200,000 employees. These troops policed labor camps, ran the Gulag system, conducted requisitions of food, subjected political opponents to secret arrest, detention, torture and summary execution, and put down rebellions and riots by workers or peasants and mutinies in the desertion-plagued Red Army.«
Russian writer Vladimir Soloukhin estimated that 50 percent of Cheka were Jewish with Jewish names, 25 percent Jewish but having taken non-Jewish names, and 25 percent other non-Russian minorities[viii]. Of the latter, many had Jewish spouses. Perhaps it was time to take revenge on Russian pogromists, in which case a Jewish Cheka operated as the enforcement arm of a largely Jewish-controlled state. Jewish historian Leonard Shapiro in 1988 wrote in his »Russian Studies« book: »Anyone who had the misfortune of to fall into the hands of the Cheka stood a very good chance of finding himself confronted with, and possibly shot by, a Jewish investigator«.
Or as Solzhenitsyn asserts: »For example, three of Dzerzhinsky’s four assistants were Jews – G. Yagoda, V.L. Gerson, and M.M. Lutsky. In the Twenties and Thirties, the leading Chekists circled over the land like birds of prey flying quickly from cliff to cliff. From the top ranks of the Central Asian GPU off to Byelorussia and from Western Siberia to the North Caucasus, from Kharkov to Orenburg and from Orel to Vinnitza—there was a perpetual whirlwind of movement and change. And the lonely voices of those surviving witnesses could only speak much later, without precise reference to time, of the executioners whose names flashed by them. The personnel, the deeds and the power of the Cheka were completely secret.«
He continues: »Below are the service records of several Chekists of the very first order (from the Russian Jewish Encyclopedia)[ix]:
Veniamin Gerson was in the Cheka from 1918, and from 1920 he was a personal adjutant to Dzerzhinsky.
Israel Leplevsky, a former member of Bund, joined the Bolsheviks in 1917 and worked in the Cheka from 1918; he was the head of the State Political Directorate [formed from the Cheka in 1922] of the Podolsk Guberniya and later of the Special Department of Odessa. And he climbed all the way up to the post of head of the OGPU [Joint State Political Directorate, the successor to the Cheka] of USSR! Later he occupied posts of Narkom of Internal Affairs of Byelorussia and Uzbekistan.
Zinovy Katznelson became a Chekist immediately after the October Revolution; later he was a head of special departments in several armies, and then of the entire Southern Front. Still later we can see him in the highest ranks in the Cheka headquarters, and even later at different times he was in charge of the Cheka of the Archangel Guberniya, the Transcaucasian Cheka, the North Caucasus GPU, the Kharkov GPU [another Cheka-successor secret police organization]; he also was deputy to the Narkom of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and deputy head of the entire GULAG [that is, the government agency that administered the main Soviet penal labor camp systems].
Solomon Mogilevsky was chair of the Ivano-Voznesensk tribunal in 1917, then in charge of Cheka in Saratov. Later we find him again in an army tribunal; and after that he was in succession: deputy head of the Bureau of Investigations of the Moscow Cheka, head of Foreign Affairs Department of Cheka headquarters, and head of the Cheka of Transcaucasia.
Lev Levin-Velsky, former member of the Bund [a Jewish socialist labor organization] was in charge of the Cheka of the Simbirsk Guberniya in 1918-1919, later of the Special Department of the 8th Army, still later of the Cheka of the Astrakhan Guberniya. Beginning in 1921, he was an envoy plenipotentiary of the central Cheka in the Far East, and later, from 1923, an envoy plenipotentiary of the OGPU in Central Asia. Still later, from the beginning of 1930, he worked in the Moscow OGPU. And even later in his career he was deputy Narkom of Internal Affairs of the USSR.
Or consider Nahum (Leonid) Etington: active in the Cheka beginning in 1919, later head of the Cheka of the Smolensk Guberniya; still later he worked in the GPU of Bashkiria; it was he who orchestrated the assassination of Trotsky.
Isaak (Semyon) Schwartz: in 1918-1919 he was the very first chair of the All-Ukranian Cheka. He was succeeded by Yakov Lifshitz who beginning in 1919 was the head of the Secret Operations Division and simultaneously a deputy head of the Cheka of the Kiev Guberniya; later he was deputy head of the Cheka of the Chernigov Guberniya, and still later — of the Kharkov Guberniya; and even later he was in charge of the Operative Headquarters of the All-Ukrainian Cheka; still later, in 1921-1922, he ran the Cheka of the Kiev Guberniya.
Let’s look at the famous Matvei Berman. He began his career in a district Cheka in the North Urals; in 1919 he was assigned as deputy head of the Cheka of the Yekaterinburg Guberniya, from 1920 – head of Cheka of Tomsk Guberniya, from 1923 – of the Buryat-Mongolian Guberniya, from 1924 – Deputy Head of the OGPU of all of Central Asia, from 1928 – head of the OGPU of Vladivostok, from 1932 – head of the entire GULAG and simultaneously a deputy Narkom of the NKVD [a successor organization to the Cheka, GPU and OGPU] from 1936. His brother Boris was in the State Intelligence Organs since 1920; in 1936 he served as deputy head of foreign intelligence section in the NKVD.
Boris Pozern, a commissar of the Petrograd Commune, substantially contributed to matching images of a Jew and that of a Chekist in people’s minds; on September 2, 1918, he co-signed the proclamation on Red Terror with Zinoviev and Dzerzhinsky. The Encyclopedia missed one Aleksandr Ioselevich, secretary of the Petrograd Cheka, who had co-signed the Red Terror execution lists with Gleb Bokiy in September, 1918.
Yet there were others, even more famous individuals. For instance, Yakov Agranov, a Chekist, phenomenally successful in conducting repressions; he invented Tagantzev’s Conspiracy (through which he killed Gumilev); he directed cruel interrogations of participants of the Kronstadt Uprising. Or take the notorious Yakov Blumkin, who participated in the assassination of the German ambassador in 1918; he was arrested and later amnestied, and then served in Trotsky’s secretariat, and later – in Mongolia, Transcaucasia, the Middle East, and was shot in 1929. And there were numerous personnel behind every Cheka organizer. Hundreds and thousands of innocents met them during interrogations, in basements and during the executions.
There were Jews among the victims too. Those who suffered from the massive communist onslaught on the “bourgeoisie” were mostly merchants. In the Maloarkhangelsk District, a merchant (Yushkevich) was placed on a red-hot cast-iron stove by members of a communist squad for failure to pay taxes. From the same source: some peasants, who defaulted on the surplus appropriation system, were lowered on ropes into water wells to simulate drowning; or, during the winter, they froze people into ice pillars for failure to pay revolutionary taxes. The particular sort of punishment depended on the imagination of the executioners. Similarly, Korolenko described how two millers, named Aronov and Mirkin, were extrajudicially shot for not complying with absurd communist-mandated prices on flour.
Or here is another example: in 1913, former Kiev Governor Sukovkin advocated innocence of Mendel Beilis during Beilis’ trial. When the Reds came, he was arrested. Thousands of Jews in Kiev signed a petition on his behalf, yet the Cheka shot him nevertheless.
Enter Josef Vissarionovich Stalin
Stalin was one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 in order to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, along Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Sokolnikov, and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party’s Central Committee in 1922. He managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin by suppressing Lenin’s criticisms (in the postscript of his testament) and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. Stalin remained General Secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 onward[x].
As Wikipedia puts it: »The economic changes | in Russia, after Stalin took over the power from deceased Lenin | coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Gulag labour camps.«
There is no coincidence in example to the facts learned about Lazar M. Kaganovich, the Architect of Fear, Stalin’s confidant who personally supervised the deadly purges that ran rampant in the Soviet union in the 1930’s and 1940’s.
Stuart Kahan wrote a book titled »The Wolf of Kremlin«, a biography of Lazar M. Kaganovich who caused the death of 20 million people. The link to the book can be found in the footnotes, here is just a short excerpt from Chapter 2, when Kaganovich was only an apprentice:
»The civil war proved costly, very costly. It killed of a generation of the most conscious workers, and it ruined Russia’s economy. Apart from the war deaths, some 9 million people perished in just two years, from 1919 to 1920, of cold, famine and disease.
In 1919, Lazar was sent to Voronezh, where, with a group of other workers, he personally participated in fights against General Denikin’s mounted army, which was coordinated by the White Guard cavalry of General K.K. Mamontov.
It was there that he learned the tactics of war, which included how to shoot a gun and how to kill with it. He remembered the first time. He had simply fired the small pistol into a crowd. Somebody clutched his throat and fell forward. It was a direct result of what he had done. It seemed so easy an act and yet so final.«
Here is a short movie about it, it may be disturbing but I kindly ask you to bear with it and watch it in its entirety.
For those readers who may be experiencing denial of rationality of the terror and violence as described, I would like to remind you that a very well documented and archived records (and tools) are preserved from the era of Inquisition. The term relates to group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic church, whose aim was to combat heresy. Both Inquisition and communism share terrifying commonality – both were persecuting heretics, where in the case of communist regime those can be related to as thought heretics. On the level of sadism there are no perceived differences among the two regimes just mentioned.
…to be continued
[ii] Franco’s regime committed a series of violent politically-motivated human rights abuses against the Spanish people, which included the establishment of concentration camps, the use of forced labor and executions, mostly against political and ideological enemies, causing an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths, depending on how the deaths in the more than 190 concentration camps are considered.
[v] Benton L Bradberry, The Myth of German Villainy, 2012
[viii] Aleksandr Solthenitsyn, 200 Years Together, p. 142
[ix] Ibid p. 148,149